Swimming Pool Chemical Balance Chart

swimming pool chemical balance chart
There are three things needed in order for galvanic corrosion to occur:
1. Electrochemically dissimilar metals must be present
2. These metals must be in electrical contact, and
3. The metals must be exposed to an electrolyte (salt in solution)
In a swimming pool all three of these exist due to the high TDS from the salt content of the water. The electrochemical cells in most chlorine generators are made of titanium which is listed on the Galvanic Corrosion Chart as a nobler metal. Most pools contain some copper in the system as well in the heat exchanger or in any brass fittings or pipe that may be in the system. Copper is a less noble metal than titanium and thus it corrodes as a result of the electrolysis in the high salt solution. This leaves black stains and debris in the pool. Copper is also rendered insoluble in the water. Copper in the water will appear as a green translucent color.
The simple solution to solve this problem is to find another less noble metal to use as a sacrificial anode that corrodes but doesn’t cause staining. When differing metals are added to salt water one metal acts as a cathode this is the nobler of the two. Titanium would be one example of a more cathodic or noble metal. The other metal may be more anodic or less noble. An example of this would be copper.
Galvanic corrosion occurs because when these two metals are in salt water with an electrical current the weaker less noble metal (copper) will corrode faster than normal. Also the stronger more noble metal (titanium) will corrode much slower than normal. It has been found in various marine industries that the addition of zinc in these types of systems prevents the corrosion of copper and stops the staining.
Zinc is very low on the galvanic chart and is one of the most anodic metals found. In salt chlorine pools zinc can be added as a solid weight into the skimmer or attached in the circulation system. This slows or stops the corrosion of copper. If the water is discolored from copper it is advised to use a metal removal product along with the zinc to remove the current discoloration and prevent reoccurrence. Most metal products on the market tend to be phosphate based and this too can cause problems in a salt chlorine generator. When selecting a metal product use a phosphate free product.
What about purple haze?
Another mystery in both salt generator and regular pools is the occurrence of a strange purple coloring and debris. This is due to high levels of cyanuric acid and insoluble copper in the water. If pH and alkalinity go low than copper cyanurate is formed leaving a purple residue along the water line and around lights and steps. The solution here is to lower cyanuric acid down to 35ppm to 50ppm and adjust up the alkalinity and pH. Also, the addition of zinc will help keep copper from corroding into the water.
These simple methods should help clear the mystery and remove the stains.


Terry Arko has more than 30 years of experience in the swimming pool and spa industry, working in service, repair, retail sales, chemical manufacturing, customer service, sales and product development. He is also a Certified Pool Operator and CPO Instructor through the National Swimming Pool Foundation. Arko is currently the recreational product specialist for SeaKlear Pool and Spa Products, a subsidiary of Halosource Inc., a clean water technology company based in Bothell, Wash. He can be reached via e-mail at tarko@seaklear.com.">Mystery Stains in Salt Generator Pools<br />By Terry Arko<br />Salt chlorine pools have become quite popular for their convenience. There are no hazardous chemicals on site, water is sanitized and oxidized automatically. There are little to no chloramines. Many users of salt generators claim softer feeling water with less chemical odor and no dry or irritated skin.<br />Along with the report of these benefits, some have also reported some strange phenomena as well. These include things like discolored water, strange stains throughout the pool that are hard to remove and prevent. Stains appearing in salt pools include:<br />• Black flecks on pool bottom<br />• Black staining on ladders and light rings<br />• Reoccurring stains and discoloration on light rings around steps or rails and discolored water.<br />• Purple haze and debris in pool water<br />These stains seem to be a mystery, however in salt pools with high TDS they are due to a simple chemical reaction known as Galvanic Corrosion. To understand this electro chemical reaction a simple understanding of the technology of chlorine generators is first needed.<br />Chlorine generators work using a process known as electrolysis. In nature chlorine is found primarily in the chloride ion, which is a component of salt found in the earth or the oceans. Electrolysis is the means of generating chemical products from their native state. A salt generator works by passing electricity through a solution of sodium chloride to produce chlorine as a disinfectant or sanitizer.<br />The most popularly used chlorine generators are the in-line type. In these systems salt water is circulated over electrochemical cells. The cells convert the sodium chloride to free available chlorine. The cells used in these systems are typically made of titanium. Though it may seem new the technology of splitting molecules via electrolysis goes back all the way to the 1700s.<br />History of electrolysis<br />• 1789 - First use of electricity to separate compounds- electrolysis<br />• 1800 - First device to generate chlorine using electricity developed by Cruickshank<br />• 1830 - Faraday used brine (salt water) to produce chlorine gas (this occurs at the anode positive electrode cell) hydrogen gas and sodium hydroxide were also produced (at the cathode negative electrode cell)<br />How galvanic corrosion occurs in swimming pools:<br />Galvanic corrosion occurs when dissimilar metals exist in a high TDS solution such as a salt generator pool. Some metals are nobler and more cathodic meaning positive currents flow from these and they tend to steal electrons from the less noble anodic or negative metals.<br />A Galvanic Corrosion Chart is used in industries that work with fluids and metals such as cooling towers. The Galvanic Corrosion Chart shows that the There are three things needed in order for galvanic corrosion to occur:
1. Electrochemically dissimilar metals must be present
2. These metals must be in electrical contact, and
3. The metals must be exposed to an electrolyte (salt in solution)
In a swimming pool all three of these exist due to the high TDS from the salt content of the water. The electrochemical cells in most chlorine generators are made of titanium which is listed on the Galvanic Corrosion Chart as a nobler metal. Most pools contain some copper in the system as well in the heat exchanger or in any brass fittings or pipe that may be in the system. Copper is a less noble metal than titanium and thus it corrodes as a result of the electrolysis in the high salt solution. This leaves black stains and debris in the pool. Copper is also rendered insoluble in the water. Copper in the water will appear as a green translucent color.
The simple solution to solve this problem is to find another less noble metal to use as a sacrificial anode that corrodes but doesn’t cause staining. When differing metals are added to salt water one metal acts as a cathode this is the nobler of the two. Titanium would be one example of a more cathodic or noble metal. The other metal may be more anodic or less noble. An example of this would be copper.
Galvanic corrosion occurs because when these two metals are in salt water with an electrical current the weaker less noble metal (copper) will corrode faster than normal. Also the stronger more noble metal (titanium) will corrode much slower than normal. It has been found in various marine industries that the addition of zinc in these types of systems prevents the corrosion of copper and stops the staining.
Zinc is very low on the galvanic chart and is one of the most anodic metals found. In salt chlorine pools zinc can be added as a solid weight into the skimmer or attached in the circulation system. This slows or stops the corrosion of copper. If the water is discolored from copper it is advised to use a metal removal product along with the zinc to remove the current discoloration and prevent reoccurrence. Most metal products on the market tend to be phosphate based and this too can cause problems in a salt chlorine generator. When selecting a metal product use a phosphate free product.
What about purple haze?
Another mystery in both salt generator and regular pools is the occurrence of a strange purple coloring and debris. This is due to high levels of cyanuric acid and insoluble copper in the water. If pH and alkalinity go low than copper cyanurate is formed leaving a purple residue along the water line and around lights and steps. The solution here is to lower cyanuric acid down to 35ppm to 50ppm and adjust up the alkalinity and pH. Also, the addition of zinc will help keep copper from corroding into the water.
These simple methods should help clear the mystery and remove the stains.


Terry Arko has more than 30 years of experience in the swimming pool and spa industry, working in service, repair, retail sales, chemical manufacturing, customer service, sales and product development. He is also a Certified Pool Operator and CPO Instructor through the National Swimming Pool Foundation. Arko is currently the recreational product specialist for SeaKlear Pool and Spa Products, a subsidiary of Halosource Inc., a clean water technology company based in Bothell, Wash. He can be reached via e-mail at tarko@seaklear.com." src="http://lh4.ggpht.com/-g0ACou23wH8/UlYrGBSdNCI/AAAAAAAAAXg/YJPrBxfz12g/images%252520%2525281%252529.jpg" width="100" height="100" />
New post (Chemical vs. Natural Swimming Pools) has been published on http://gd.is/fW3qTn<br />Natural swimming pools or living spas are much more common throughout Europe, but are increasingly becoming more popular in the United States. Now that the spring weather is beginning to surface, it’s time for Eco Brooklyn to open up our Living Pool for the swimming season. So how does this compare to tradition swimming pool maintenance? Like our design philosophy, Eco Brooklyn’s swimming hole should blend low energy costs with little to no waste or hazardous chemicals.<br />Here is a simple diagram from Inspiration Green that depicts exactly how natural swimming pools function.<br />Natural Filtration<br /><br />The first step in opening our natural spa is to turn on the tiny 100 watt water pump that feeds the soiled plants, bacteria, and critters that filter the pool’s water.<br />Next we turn on a very small aeration pump which enriches the water with oxygen, to encourage more plant growth and aerobic bacteria function.<br />Lastly Eco Brooklyn interns get to spend the morning scooping up algae that has accumulated over the winter. Adding some barley straw is also helpful in controlling algae by producing lignin, which is then converted to hydrogen peroxide in the presence of sunlight.<br /><br />So how does opening a chemically intensive pool compare?<br />Step one is controlling the pH by keeping it at 7.0 or slightly below. If the pH is above 7.5 the chlorine is only about 10% effective. In most cases this involves the addition muriatic acid.<br />Step two is to check the alkalinity, which should be between 80-140 ppm. Alkalinity is a measure of the water’s resistance to a change in pH. An improper balance of pH and alkalinity can reduce the effect of sanitation, cause cloudiness, and/ or deteriorate the concrete or siding.<br />Step three involves determining your Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Calcium Hardness. Both of these measurements will affect how corrosive the water is and often requires draining the pool.<br />Step four is backwashing the filter for cleaning when the gauge moves from 8-10 psi away from clean.<br />Step five comprises of cleaning the skimmer basket and scrubbing the walls of the pool weekly to prevent plaque build-up.<br />Lastly, running the filter and vacuum skimmer, often for a couple hours a day, for proper water sanitation is essential.<br />Considering the immense construction costs, the harsh chemicals additives, high energy pumps, and the endless hours of labor to produce and maintain a traditional swimming pool, it’s no wonder the Natural Pool phenomenon is catching on in America. The aquatic ecosystems are almost completely self-sustaining, and after the initial cost of construction you are basically done with the expenditure.


 Aqua Blocks For Inground Swimming Pool Closing Store 
 Kreepy Krauly Swimming Pool Cleaner Parts Store 
 Swimming Pool Algaecides Store 
 Commercial-Grade Automatic Swimming Pool Cleaners Store 


Why Timbers Coach Caleb Porter Believes Last Year Wasn't a Total Disaster ... - Portland Monthly



Portland Monthly

Why Timbers Coach Caleb Porter Believes Last Year Wasn't a Total Disaster ...
Portland Monthly
After a quiet off-season, during which other teams dropped millions on big names, the Timbers emphasized stability and consistency, returning 21 of last year's players. Porter answered our questions about fixing the team, getting the right balance in ...

and more »






Strong Show of Support For Pool - Sewardcity News



Sewardcity News

Strong Show of Support For Pool
Sewardcity News
Swimmers and pool users of all ages gave a strong show of support for the Seward High School pool at a public meeting at the high school Tuesday, as Kenai Peninsula Borough School District administrators, facing an estimated shortfall of between $6.5 ...







The Swastika, An Ancient Symbol Of Prosperity, Struggles To Overcome Nazi ... - Huffington Post



The Swastika, An Ancient Symbol Of Prosperity, Struggles To Overcome Nazi ...
Huffington Post
The symbol can also be found in Lalwani's office, which has long featured the swastika on its safe and balance sheets. When he was a child, Lalwani said, his father placed the swastika out of sight behind a TV monitor in deference to his Jewish ...







Last week's top stories - Bloomington Pantagraph



Bloomington Pantagraph

Last week's top stories
Bloomington Pantagraph
The Palace Cinemas' Mark Juers, right, watches last fall as Michael McDowell, left, and Roy Magsby with Labors Local 362 bring in concrete for remodeling work. After seven months of extensive renovations, the Bloomington theater complex has been ...

and more »






Mark Dantonio Cotton Bowl Recap Teleconference Transcript - Michigan State Athletics



Michigan State Athletics

Mark Dantonio Cotton Bowl Recap Teleconference Transcript
Michigan State Athletics
Good team chemistry. Nobody panicked on the sideline, everybody understood we had a good football team. We needed some things to fall our way and they started to in the fourth quarter. But great individual efforts, you know, to hit the deep balls.

and more »






Films to focus on restoration, dam removal - Portland Tribune



Portland Tribune

Films to focus on restoration, dam removal
Portland Tribune
Zac Perry, canyon restoration manager, has been working for the college actively restoring the headwaters of Crystal Springs Creek since 1999, when he oversaw the removal of a concrete, chlorinated swimming pool that was built into the stream channel ...







Good Chemistry - Investing Daily



Good Chemistry
Investing Daily
Dow Chemical (NYSE: DOW) is one of the three biggest chemical companies in the world (DuPont and BASF are the others). Its products can be found almost everywhere you look, and it has been expanding into new markets as the revival of economic ...

and more »






Berkshire Taconic president to step down - Waterbury Republican American



Waterbury Republican American

Berkshire Taconic president to step down
Waterbury Republican American
Jennifer Dowley, president of the Berkshire Taconic Community Foundation, will be leaving the position at the end of this year after 17 years at the helm. "I've had satisfaction every day," she said, talking about the nonprofit foundation's support of ...







Mark Dantonio Weekly Press Conference Coverage - Michigan State Athletics



Mark Dantonio Weekly Press Conference Coverage
Michigan State Athletics
I've said many times, We're winning 10 games because we got good players, but we've got great chemistry. ... Our players believe in each other, and there is just a chemistry that exists between them. .... He has a black belt in Karate, so extremely ...

and more »
Google News









 Aboveground Swimming Pool Heaters Store 
 5-Mil Aboveground Swimming Pool Solar Blankets Store 
 Swimming Pool Shock Store 
 Swimming Pool Algaecides Store 
 Premier Swimming Pool Equipment Parts Store 
 Solar Reels For Inground Swimming Pools Store 
 Aboveground Overlap 25-Mil Vinyl Swimming Pool Liners Store 
 Aboveground Swimming Pool Heaters Store 
 Polaris Swimming Pool Equipment Parts Store 
 Swimming Pool AND Spa Safety Signs Store 
 Inground Swimming Pool Heaters Store 
 Horizon Reels Swimming Pool Solar Reel Parts Store 
 Swimming Pool Safety Alarms Store 
 Inground Swimming Pool Solar Heating Systems Store 
 Swimming Pool Chlorine Store 
 Swimming Pool Algaecides Store 
 Sani-King Swimming Pool Equipment Parts Store 
 SPP Stock Mesh Safety Swimming Pool Covers Store 
 Inground Swimming Pool Solar Blankets 12-Mil TX Store 
 Water Tubes For Inground Swimming Pool Closing Store 
 Inground Winter Swimming Pool Cover Leaf Catchers Store 
 Swimming Pool Winter Closing Chemical Kits Store 
 Commercial-Grade Automatic Swimming Pool Cleaners Store 
 Portable Spas AND Hot Tubs Store 
 Swimming Pool Sports AND Games Store 
 Teledyne Swimming Pool Equipment Parts Store 
 5-Mil Aboveground Swimming Pool Solar Blankets Store 
 Inground Winter Swimming Pool Cover Leaf Catchers Store 
 Horizon Reels Swimming Pool Solar Reel Parts Store 
 Swimming Pool Biguanide Chemicals Store 
 Sun Dome Swimming Pool AND Spa Enclosures Store 
 Custom Commercial Safety Swimming Pool Covers Store 
 Inground Mesh Winter Swimming Pool Covers Store 
 Swimming Pool AND Deck Paints AND Coatings Store 
 SPP Stock Solid Safety Swimming Pool Covers Store 
 12-Mil Aboveground Swimming Pool Solar Blankets Store 
 Custom Solid Safety Swimming Pool Covers Store 
 Spa Water Chemicals Store 
 Garage AND Home Storage Accessories Store 
 15-Year Custom Winter Swimming Pool Covers Store 
 Swimming Pool Maintenance Products Store 
 Aqua Products Swimming Pool Equipment Parts Store 
 Aboveground Swimming Pool Filters Store 
 Inground Swimming Pool Solar Blankets 12-Mil TX Store 
 SPP Stock Mesh Safety Swimming Pool Covers Store 
 Competitive Products Store 
 Solar Reels For Aboveground Swimming Pools Store 
 Inground Vinyl Swimming Pool Liners Store 
 Aboveground Swimming Pool Pumps Store 
 Swimming Pool Heat Pumps Store 
 Meyco Safety Swimming Pool Covers Store 
 Watermatic Swimming Pool Equipment Parts Store 
 Aboveground Mesh Winter Swimming Pool Covers Store 
 Vinyl Swimming Pool Liner Accessories Store 
 Hayward Swimming Pool Equipment Parts Store 
 Inground Steel-Wall Swimming Pool Kits Store 
 Water Tubes For Inground Swimming Pool Closing Store 
 Swimming Pool Maintenance Products Store 
 Inground Winter Swimming Pool Cover Leaf Catchers Store 
 Inground Swimming Pool Heaters Store 
 Aboveground Winter Swimming Pool Cover Leaf Catchers Store 
 Aboveground Swimming Pool Pumps Store 
 Horizon Reels Swimming Pool Solar Reel Parts Store 
 Spa AND Hot Tub Accessories Store 
 Swimming Pool Algaecides Store 
 Competitive Products Store 
 Swimming Pool AND Deck Paints AND Coatings Store 
 Swimming Pool Cleaning Chemicals Store 
 Competitive Products Store 
 Swimming Pool Calcium Hypochlorite Store 
 Odyssey Reels Swimming Pool Solar Reel Parts Store 
 Swimming Pool Algaecides Store 
 Swimming Pool Alternative Water Sanitizers Store 
 Inground Mesh Winter Swimming Pool Covers Store 
 Inground Swimming Pool Solar Blankets 12-Mil TX Store 
 Swimming Pool Balancing Chemicals Store 
 Polaris Swimming Pool Equipment Parts Store 
 Spa Water Chemicals Store 
 Inground Swimming Pool Fencing Store 
 SPP Stock Mesh Safety Swimming Pool Covers Store 
 Aboveground Skirted Winter Swimming Pool Covers Store 
 Inground Winter Swimming Pool Cover Leaf Catchers Store 
 Inground Mesh Winter Swimming Pool Covers Store 

Enregistrer un commentaire