Swimming Pool Calcium Hypochlorite

swimming pool calcium hypochlorite
Boric Acid Flames<br /><br />The concept of colored Flames<br />You can use a methanol flame and various ionic substances (salts) to make colored flames. All of the flames pictured in this post were produced by me using the methods detailed herein. Most of the substances mentioned below can be obtained inexpensively from ordinary merchants (i.e. no need to visit a chemist).<br />green<br />boric acid (et al.)<br />lavender<br />potassium chloride<br />yellow<br />sodium chloride (et al.)<br />orange<br />calcium chloride<br />red<br />strontium chloride (et al.)<br />You only need between one and 3 mL of methanol for a non-overlarge flame to burn for a couple of minutes. See the snapshot of the vials and pen for an idea of scale.<br />Where to get methanol<br />The only easy means I found for getting small amounts of methanol is buying gas-line anti-freeze. HEET antifreeze can be found at 7-11, AutoZone, O’Reilly Auto Parts, etc. for about $3/bottle. It’s 99% methanol.<br />Green flames<br />For a few dollars, you can get a big box of boric acid at the grocery store, under its commercial name: Borax. Find it with the cleaning supplies. The green flame pictured at the top of this post was produced with Borax. It dissolves/suspends easily in methanol.<br />The problem with the boric acid flame is that when the flame gets very hot, it turns yellow. If you burn your methanol in a container that conducts the heat away, or if you only use a little bit of methanol (so that the flame does not continue too long), this may not be an issue for you.<br />Copper salts, such as cupric chloride, a.k.a. copper II chloride, produce a richer color, and when the flame gets hot, it migrates from green to blue. A cheaper alternative to cupric chloride is copper sulfate, which I found for five dollars a pound at the local feed and supply store (it’s used as an herbicide and an algaecide); however, although copper sulfate is used as a blue pigment in pyrotechnics, I was not able to get a colored flame from it in methanol. (Perhaps a future post will describe how this and other substances can be used in standard pyrotechnics to produce deeper colors.)<br />Lavender flames<br />Potassium is what gives us the lavender flame. You can find potassium chloride in your grocery store, sold as a salt substitute. Check the spice aisle.<br />You can see from the pictures that I got some nice color from the substance, but be warned that I could not get it to dissolve or suspend at all in methanol. Dissolving it in water and putting about one part of the water solution to six parts methanol gave me a bit of effect, but what was most effective was to also pour a pile of the potassium chloride into a container, cover it with methanol, and wait until the flame got quite as hot as it would.<br />Yellow flames<br />The two yellow photographs in this post suggest that I got a really rich yellow or orange flame, but in fact to my eyes, the flames seemed far less intense, not so different from a candle flame. I suppose that the camera’s vision was not true.<br />Sodium gives us the yellow color, and you can use table salt (sodium chloride) or baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), either of which can be obtained from the grocery store.<br />I found this substance much like potassium chloride in that it would hardly dissolve or suspend. Again, I recommend packaging the salt and alcohol separately, then pouring one over the other when it’s time to touch it off.<br />Orange flames<br />Calcium chloride, which a friend on staff at the local community college supplied me, provides a nice orange flame. This was probably a bad example to use because 1) I don’t know how to obtain it commercially, and 2) it is so hygroscopic that I don’t know how to work with it easily — in other words, if you leave the lid off of it, it will suck water from the air until you have a puddle of dissolved calcium chloride in your bottle. And I don’t even live in a very humid area.<br />Red flames<br />Strontium and lithium are used for red pigments. For about $3.50, you can get a tub of strontium carbonate (see previous post); lithium is about six times as expensive.<br />The red flame pictured above was produced with strontium, but strontium carbonate actually wouldn’t give me any color in methanol. I added muriatic acid (available at pool supply stores) to the strontium carbonate to produce strontium chloride, which is what I used in the flame. (Instructions on how to make strontium chloride appear in the previous post.)<br />Strontium chloride dissolves/suspends pretty well in methanol. When the flame is cool, you get a nice magenta color; when the flame gets hot, you get red/red-orange.<br />Tips & tricks<br />Use methanol because it has an invisible flame, which will allow us to see the colors emitted by the salts. — Other flammable substances, like ethanol or naptha, produce enough white light that adding any color to it will not yield an observable result.<br />Your salt pigments are not actually going through a chemical reaction. That means that they don’t get consumed, and you can recover them (or just pour more methanol on them) and use them again.<br />Because methanol is so apolar, it will not dissolve your salts as well as water would. It is necessary in some cases (mentioned below) to add water to your mixture and/or pour ethanol over a small pile of undissolved salt.<br />These chemical-to-color listings may differ from others you’ve seen<br />You can find long lists of chemicals and the colors they produce in pyrotechnics or flame tests. In both pyrotechnics and flame tests, your chemicals absorb more heat than our methanol flames will produce. Consequently, you read here that cupric chloride produces a green flame, but other sites will tell you it is a blue pigment.<br />You can achieve richer colors with higher temperatures, but for the treasure hunt for which my flames were intended, I preferred to avoid high temperatures and the copious amounts of smoke that accompany standard pyrotechnics. The small alcohol flames discussed here are safe for indoor use.
CHEMICAL COMPANY SAVES MONEY WITH AMSOIL METAL PROTECTOR<br /><br />Global Water Treatment Chemicals, Inc. in Weatherford, Texas is a manufacturer and distributor of watertreatment chemicals for the United States and international markets. Its product line includes 2 5/8-inch and 3-inch chlorine tablets for the treatment of water in septic systems and swimming pools. The tablets are made from 65 percent granular calcium hypochlorite.<br /><br />The tablets are created using two Stokes tablet presses, one for each tablet size. The granular calcium hypochlorite is fed into a cylinder on the press, and under 75 tons of pressure, a die presses the granules into tablets.<br /><br />A significant amount of chlorine dust is created on the presses and components, and no matter how hard employees worked to clean and maintain the equipment, rust formed on the components.<br /><br />“Eventually the rust would get to the point that the platform, cylinders and dies would need to be replaced,” said Andrew Wojtaszczyk, vice president/ COO /co-owner of the company. “Since replacement parts are no longer available for these presses, each part would have to be individually machine-tooled.”<br /><br />Wojtaszczyk said he tried many products in his efforts to extend the life of the parts.<br /><br />“I tried WD-40, silicone sprays and every other type of product I could find, but nothing prevented rust from forming (on the components) between production runs,” he said.<br /><br />Then, Wojtaszczyk discovered a can of AMSOIL Metal Protector in a friend’s race car trailer.<br /><br />“I tried MP and it worked,” he said. “Whether the presses sit overnight or through the weekend, there’s no rust where we have sprayed when we start up again.”<br /><br />Wojtaszczyk searched the Internet for #AMSOIL in his area and discovered Dealer Gale Binder in Weatherford. Wojtaszczyk ordered a case of MP. “I delivered it to his office that day, and since most customers don’t order MP by the case, I was curious how he was using it,” Binder said. “I signed him up as a commercial account shortly after. MP has been the catalyst to enable me to have other AMSOIL discussions with him.”<br /><br />At the end of each production run, the chlorine dust is vacuumed from the press and its components. The cylinder, die and platform are thoroughly cleaned, then sprayed with Metal Protector to prevent rust from forming on the bare metal parts between production runs.<br /><br />“We were having to have these parts tooled about every six months for each press,” Wojtaszczyk said. “Since we started using AMSOIL Metal Protector we do not have to replace these parts every six months. This saves us approximately $24,000 each year in machine-tooling charges.”
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Hotel leisure complex evacuated after chemical accident - Hinckley Times



Hinckley Times

Hotel leisure complex evacuated after chemical accident
Hinckley Times
According to the fire service, the two chemicals incorrectly mixed together were calcium hypochlorite and sodium hydrogen sulphate. A chlorine gas was created which has necessitated the evacuation. Windows at the leisure centre have been closed and the ...







ITC Greenlights Duties On Chinese Pool Chlorine Imports - Law360 (subscription)



ITC Greenlights Duties On Chinese Pool Chlorine Imports
Law360 (subscription)
Law360, New York (January 08, 2015, 4:34 PM ET) -- The U.S. International Trade Commission on Thursday cleared the way for customs authorities to begin collecting duties on Chinese imports of a chemical solution used in swimming pool chlorine after ...







What's Inside HTH Pool Care Chlorinating Granules - Wired



What's Inside HTH Pool Care Chlorinating Granules
Wired
The key active ingredient in HTH Chlorinating Granules, calcium hypochlorite is the Grim Reaper of bacteria, algae, fungi, slime, and other swimming pool creeps. It kills through oxidation, which disrupts the cellular processes of microorganisms. But ...







Pool cleaner and brake fluid fireballs! - io9



Pool cleaner and brake fluid fireballs!
io9
You can find any number of demonstrations of it under "chlorine and brake fluid," but what you really need is not pure chlorine but a product generally referred to as pool shock. It's calcium hypochlorite. Meanwhile, the brake fluid should be a type ...







Maryland YMCA Pool Mishap: Malfunctioning Pump Floods Pool With Chemicals ... - Medical Daily



Medical Daily

Maryland YMCA Pool Mishap: Malfunctioning Pump Floods Pool With Chemicals ...
Medical Daily
Jackie Dilworth, a spokeswoman for YMCA of Metropolitan Washington, told The Washington Post more than two dozen campers, ages 6 to 16, had been swimming in the pool Wednesday when a pump unexpectedly shut down. After a counselor ... Within this ...

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How We Got to Now by Steven Johnson - review - The Guardian



The Guardian

How We Got to Now by Steven Johnson - review
The Guardian
Others are wonderfully oblique: the liquefaction of air in the late-19th century led, via the isolation of neon, to the extravaganza of Las Vegas; calcium hypochlorite (bleach) led to more flesh being bared during bathing (chlorinated swimming pools ...







US launches antidumping probe over Chinese calcium hypochlorite - Xinhua



US launches antidumping probe over Chinese calcium hypochlorite
Xinhua
Calcium hypochlorite is an ingredient in bleaching powder, widely used for the disinfection of drinking water or swimming pool water. The investigations are in response to a petition filed by Arch Chemicals based in Georgia, the department said in a ...







Ultraviolet disinfection system to eliminate waterborne illnesses in Forest ... - The Grand Rapids Press - MLive.com



Ultraviolet disinfection system to eliminate waterborne illnesses in Forest ...
The Grand Rapids Press - MLive.com
Swieter said the UV system will enhance its current calcium hypochlorite disinfection system and will eliminate the disinfectant byproducts, such as monochloramines, dichloramines and trichloramines. The UV system also inactivates microorganisms that ...







ProMinent ProCal granular calcium hypochlorite feeder - Pool+Spa



ProMinent ProCal granular calcium hypochlorite feeder
Pool+Spa
ProCals are used in commercial aquatic centres, learn-to-swim pools, hydrotherapy pools, hotel and apartment pools, residential village pools, school pools and water play parks. The ProCal series comes pre-wired and pre-plumbed for easy installation ...

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